Category Bahan Kuliah Creative Problem Solving

Multimethodology:for Mixing Towards a FrameworkMethodologies (Mingers,1997)

A paradigm is a very general set of philosophical assumptions that define the nature of possible research and intervention. We shall distinguish between paradigms in terms of three philosophical dimensions:

  • ontology: the types of entities assumed to existence (real world)
  • epistemology: the possibilities of, and limitations on, our knowledge of the world (perception)
  • Praxiology: how we should act in an informed and reflective manner.

Methodology is a structured set of guidelines or activities to assist people in undertaking research or intervention.

  • Usually there is more than one methodology within a paradigm.
  • Methodologies may be developed self-consciously as methodologies (for example, Soft Systems Methodology), or they may emerge as broad prescriptions for good practice in using p...
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The Nature of Systems and Metaphors

  • What is your definition?
  • In System Thinking:

–A particular way of organizing our thoughts about the world/problem/situation we are facing

–It is an organizing concept

  • To better understand a system (the nature of the system and its environments)

–Machine Metaphor / Pre-Systems Metaphor

–Organic Metaphor

–Neuro-Cybernetic Metaphor

–Cultural Metaphor

–Political Metaphor

Machine Metaphor (Closed System) / Pre-Systems Metaphor View

  • Emphasis on the efficiency of the parts
  • It operates in a routine and repetitive fashion with a predefined set of activities, seeking efficiency to achieve goals
    • Useful if:

    –The tasks are straightforward & repetitive

    –Stable environment

    –E.g. armed forces, large franchise (fast food chains)

    • Consequence:

    –Lower adaptability of organization...

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