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    Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts Read More

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    Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts Read More

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    Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts Read More

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    Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts Read More

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  • Category Bahan Kuliah Creative Problem Solving

    Multimethodology:for Mixing Towards a FrameworkMethodologies (Mingers,1997)

    A paradigm is a very general set of philosophical assumptions that define the nature of possible research and intervention. We shall distinguish between paradigms in terms of three philosophical dimensions:

    • ontology: the types of entities assumed to existence (real world)
    • epistemology: the possibilities of, and limitations on, our knowledge of the world (perception)
    • Praxiology: how we should act in an informed and reflective manner.

    Methodology is a structured set of guidelines or activities to assist people in undertaking research or intervention.

    • Usually there is more than one methodology within a paradigm.
    • Methodologies may be developed self-consciously as methodologies (for example, Soft Systems Methodology), or they may emerge as broad prescriptions for good practice in using p...
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    The Nature of Systems and Metaphors

    • What is your definition?
    • In System Thinking:

    –A particular way of organizing our thoughts about the world/problem/situation we are facing

    –It is an organizing concept

    • To better understand a system (the nature of the system and its environments)

    –Machine Metaphor / Pre-Systems Metaphor

    –Organic Metaphor

    –Neuro-Cybernetic Metaphor

    –Cultural Metaphor

    –Political Metaphor

    Machine Metaphor (Closed System) / Pre-Systems Metaphor View

    • Emphasis on the efficiency of the parts
    • It operates in a routine and repetitive fashion with a predefined set of activities, seeking efficiency to achieve goals
      • Useful if:

      –The tasks are straightforward & repetitive

      –Stable environment

      –E.g. armed forces, large franchise (fast food chains)

      • Consequence:

      –Lower adaptability of organization...

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