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  • Slide # 1

    Slide # 1

    Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts Read More

    Slide # 2

    Slide # 2

    Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts Read More

    Slide # 3

    Slide # 3

    Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts Read More

    Slide # 4

    Slide # 4

    Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts Read More

    Slide # 5

    Slide # 5

    Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts Read More

     
  • Student Affairs
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  • The Nature of Systems and Metaphors

    • What is your definition?
    • In System Thinking:

    –A particular way of organizing our thoughts about the world/problem/situation we are facing

    –It is an organizing concept

    • To better understand a system (the nature of the system and its environments)

    –Machine Metaphor / Pre-Systems Metaphor

    –Organic Metaphor

    –Neuro-Cybernetic Metaphor

    –Cultural Metaphor

    –Political Metaphor

    Machine Metaphor (Closed System) / Pre-Systems Metaphor View

    • Emphasis on the efficiency of the parts
    • It operates in a routine and repetitive fashion with a predefined set of activities, seeking efficiency to achieve goals
      • Useful if:

      –The tasks are straightforward & repetitive

      –Stable environment

      –E.g. armed forces, large franchise (fast food chains)

      • Consequence:

      –Lower adaptability of organization on volatile environment

    Organic Metaphor (Open System) View

    • Emphasis the human aspect of organizations
    • Issues such as motivation (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs), leadership style, job enrichment, etc
    • Organization as an organism to survive
    • Useful if:

    –Open relation to changing environment

    –Responsiveness toward changes

    –Complex environment (e.g. today turbulence environment)

    • Consequence:

    –Passively adapt rather than proactively Assume harmonious relation among people

    Neuro-Cybernetic Metaphor  (Viable System) View

    • Emphasis on Active Learning & control (organization as a brain)
    • Focus on information processing and viability
    • Depends on the ability to communicate and learn
    • Useful if:

    –Promote self-enquiry, self-criticism & encourage creativity

    –Dynamic goal seeking

    –High degree of uncertainty

    –E.g. autonomous workgroups, innovative firms

    • Consequence:

    –Forget purpose of the parts (may not the same with the whole)

    Cultural Metaphor

    • Emphasis the organization as a collectivity of employee
    • Assume employee has collaborative and community-like spirit
    • Culture is a shared characteristics at all level of organization
      • Useful if:

      –Cohesion of shared values have impact on organizational development (need to be managed)

      –E.g. Done initially by Japanese firms

      • Consequence:

      –Can lead to explicit ideological control (feeling of manipulation, resentment, mistrust)

      –Takes time (culture)

      –Have no structure

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